1. Onderzoeksvraag2. Zoektermen – 3. Informatiebronnen – 4. Zoeken – 5. Selecteren van informatie – 6. Verwerken van bronnen



You may use any information you find in other publications for your studies. Not only information from books and articles, but also information from websites.

However, there is one very important condition:

▪       You should always state the source: share where you found the information

Source citation

What is source citation?

In the source citation (also called literature reference and reference) you indicate where you found the information: in which book or journal article or on which website. You always use a citation style such as APA..

Why source citation?

  • It must be clear what your own ideas are and what you have read from someone else. See also: Plagiarism
  • The reader must be able to check where you got the information from
  • The use of appropriate sources increases the quality of your report and therefore also its credibility

How do you process a source?

  • In your text, you include a brief reference to the source. This consists of author’s name, year of publication and sometimes page number
  • The reference in the text itself can be done in two ways: quoting or paraphrasing. Quoting is a literal copy of a text. Paraphrasing is reproducing a text in your own words See also: Quoting, paraphrasing
  • At the end of your report, you include a list of all the sources you have used: the source list or reference list.
  • The source list contains at least the following items for each publication: author

+ year + title + publisher. See: Reference list

Examples (APA-style):


Example: Source tekst “Like other marine animals living near heavily populated coasts, horse conchs have lost considerable habitat to development and pollution, including favorite breeding grounds along mud flats and seagrass beds. Their Gulf habitat is also warming due to climate change, which scientists think further pressures the animals, based on the negative effects extra heat has on other big mollusks” (Barnett, 2022).


Scientists believe that temperature rises resulting from climate change are negatively impacting horse conchs living in the Gulf of Mexico. Development and pollution have also deprived them of important breeding grounds (Barnett, 2022).

The source list at the end of your report contains the complete source list:

Barnett, C. (2022, April 6). One of the world’s biggest sea snails at risk of extinction. National Geographic. Retrieved October 1, 2022, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/article/one-of-the-worlds-biggest-sea-snails-at-risk-of-extinction

For more information see: Citing, Paraphrasing and Reference list.